AF is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, affecting an estimated 2.7 to 6.1 million people in the United States, or approximately two percent of individuals <65 years and nine percent of those ≥65 years. Aside from increasing age and family history, hypertension is the greatest risk factor for AF, accounting for more than one-fifth of all cases. Read the full story & the medicine behind it.
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An estimated six percent of US adults have BE,1 a condition in which metaplastic columnar mucosa replaces the stratified esophageal squamous epithelium.2 Metaplasia is often a response to chronic inflammation, with GERD linked to a 10 to 15 percent risk. Other risk factors for BE include hiatal hernia, age >50 years, male gender, white race, cigarette smoking, family history, and central obesity. Read the full story & the medicine behind it.
AAA is a degenerative process occurring between the diaphragm and the aortic bifurcation that results in a segmental, full-thickness dilatation of the abdominal aorta exceeding the normal vessel diameter by 50 percent (i.e., ≥3.0 cm). AAAs, approximately 85 percent of which are infrarenal, are usually asymptomatic until they rupture, an often fatal event with a mortality of 85 to 90 percent. Of those patients who reach the hospital, only 50 to 70 percent survive. Read the full story & the medicine behind it.
Osteosarcomas can develop in any bone but have a predilection for the metaphyseal regions of the long bones of the extremities. The femur is the most common site for osteosarcoma formation, accounting for 42 percent of all cases, three-quarters of which are located in the distal femur (Table 1). Read the full story & the medicine behind it.
ATC is a rare form of undifferentiated cancer that accounts for less than two percent of all thyroid cancers but has a disproportionately high mortality rate of 33 to 50 percent. Patients are usually in their sixth or seventh decade of life at presentation, have an average median survival of five months, and fewer than 20 percent are alive one year after diagnosis. Read the full story & the medicine behind it.